The term Islamic banking refers to a banking activity or a system of banking that is in consonance with the basic principles of Islamic Shraiah(rules and values set by Islam). Islamic banking is also known as interest free banking system as the Shariah disallows the acceptance of “Riba” or interest rate for the accepting and lending of money. In Islamic banking system, a business that offers good interest rates or services is strictly prohibited and it is in fact considered Haraam(forbidden). Islamic banking offers the same facilities as conventional banking system except that it strictly follows the rules of Shariah or Fiqh al- Muamlat.
The Origin, History and Evolution of Islamic Banking
The origin of Islamic banking system can be traced back to the advent of Islam when the Prophet himself carried out trading operations for his wife. The “Mudarbah” or Islamic partnerships has been widely appreciated by the Muslim business community for centuries but the concept of “Riba” or interest has gained very little diligence in regular or day-to-day transactions.
The first model of Islamic banking system came into picture in 1963 in Egypt. Ahmad Al Najjar was the chief founder of this bank and the key features are profit sharing on the non interest based philosophy of the Islamic Shariah. These banks were actually more than financial institutions rather than commercial banks as they pay or charge interest on transactions. In 1974, the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) had established the first Islamic bank called the Islamic Development Bank or IDB. The basic business model of this bank was to provide financial assistance and support on profit sharing.
By the end of 1970, several Islamic banking systems have been established through out the Muslim world, including the first private commercial bank in Dubai(1975), the Bahrain Islamic bank(1979) and the Faisal Islamic bank of Sudan (1977).
Major Models of Islamic Banking and Finance System
The main and important models of Islamic banking system are as follows:
Murabaha is the sale on the profit which is mutually agreed by both parties. Islamic banking system has adopted this term as a primary mode or technique of financing. Murabaha is actually a request which is set by the client to the Islamic bank to leverage certain services or goods for him and in return, the bank provides a definite profit to the client over the cost of the services or goods.
It is the contract or the legal right against a lawful or a specified return for the effort or work which is proposed to be expended and for the benefits that are proposed to be taken.
It is the regular or general sales of goods in which the price of the goods or commodity is bargained between the buyer and the seller.